Tourism in Chad is a relatively minor industry. Most travellers are attracted by Chad's hunting capabilities and its Zakouma National Park.
Tourists must have valid passports and visas, as well as evidence of yellow fever immunization. As of 2000, there were roughly 43, 000 tourist arrivals in the country. Chad had 677 hotel rooms with 1, 250 beds in that year. The US Department of State estimated the average daily cost of staying in N'Djamena to be $239 in 2002, compared to less than $50 in other parts of the country
Chad has a hot and tropical climate, though temperatures do vary depending on area. The southern rainy season runs May-October, and the central rains from June-September. The north has very little rain all year. The dry season is often windy, and cooler during the evenings.
N'Djaména offers a fair selection of restaurants serving mainly French and African food. Standard European-style service is normal. Outside the capital, restaurants tend to be cheap and cheerful and there is an acute shortage of some foods. Visitors should exercise caution with street market food.
• Peanut sauce over rice, often eaten in Southern Chad.
10% is normal for most services (US Dollars are the preferred currency).
Chad's excellent beer, Gala, is brewed in Moundou and is widely available in the non-Muslim parts of the capital.
Karkanji, a drink made from Hibiscus flowers.
Chad (; Tchad, تشاد), officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, the Central African Republic to the south, Cameroon and Nigeria to the southwest, and Niger to the west. Due to its distance from the sea and its largely desert climate, the country is sometimes referred to as the "Dead Heart of Africa".
Chad is divided into multiple regions: a desert zone in the north, an arid Sahelian belt in the centre and a more fertile Sudanese savanna zone in the south. Lake Chad, after which the country is named, is the largest wetland in Chad and the second largest in Africa. Chad's highest peak is the Emi Koussi in the Sahara, and N'Djamena, (formerly Fort-Lamy), the capital, is the largest city. Chad is home to over 200 different ethnic and linguistic groups. Arabic and French are the official languages. Islam and Christianity are the most widely practised religions.
Beginning in the 7th millennium BC, human populations moved into the Chadian basin in great numbers. By the end of the 1st millennium BC, a series of states and empires rose and fell in Chad's Sahelian strip, each focused on controlling the trans-Saharan trade routes that passed through the region. France conquered the territory by 1920 and incorporated it as part of French Equatorial Africa.
In 1960, Chad obtained independence under the leadership of François Tombalbaye. Resentment towards his policies in the Muslim north culminated in the eruption of a long-lasting civil war in 1965. In 1979, the rebels conquered the capital and put an end to the south's hegemony. However, the rebel commanders fought amongst themselves until Hissène Habré defeated his rivals. He was overthrown in 1990 by his general Idriss Déby. Recently, the Darfur crisis in Sudan has spilt over the border and destabilised the nation, with hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees living in and around camps in eastern Chad.
While many political parties are active, power lies firmly in the hands of President Déby and his political party, the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Chad remains plagued by political violence and recurrent attempted coups d'état (see Battle of N'Djamena (2006) and Battle of N'Djamena (2008)).
Chad is one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world; most inhabitants live in poverty as subsistence herders and farmers. Since 2003, crude oil has become the country's primary source of export earnings, superseding the traditional cotton industry.
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